Friendship is like a violin; the music may stop now and then, but the strings will last forever
What’s the sweetest time of the day? It’s when you pray; you’re talking to the one who loves you most. – Notebook of Love
Sun-Alperin, M.K. & Wang, M. (2011). Cross-language transfer of phonological and orthographic processing skills from Spanish L1 to English L2. Reading and Writing, 24, 591-614.
finished 11/26 (obviously except for results. i tried tho)
The authors mentioned that cross-language research has focused on L1 phonological processing and its relation to L2 reading. Limited research has been on the effect of L1 orthographic processing and L2 reading and spelling. but reserach has found that both phonological and orthographic skills contribute to reading acquisition. Phonological processing skills in L1 (Chinese/Korean) transfers to English but orthographic knowledge does not contribute much to English word reading
This study investigated how L1 phonological and orthographic processing skills influence reading and speling acquisition in L2.
89 Spanish-English bilingual 2nd and 3rd graders
Spanish phonological processing skills esp phoneme deletion predicted a signif amount of variance in Eng real word and pseudoword reading as well as spelling. But, orthographic processing skills in Sp didn’t predict a sig amount of variance in Eng read word or pseudoword spelling. Spelling requires more orthographic knowledge, need to know all the letters to correctly spell a word vs reading, don’t need to process each letter to recognize the word. spelling of nonwords can’t rely o memorization
English: phonological and orthographic processing skills predicted a signif amount of unique variance in both real word and pseudoword reading and spelling. for real word reading, phoneme deletion and homophone choice were sign predictors
thus, universal phonolog processes, for alphabetic lang, are important in facilitating bilingual reading acquisition.
orthographic learning in Sp is important for native Spanish-speaking children learning to read in English. Not only does phonological processing skills predict word reading and spelling, but orthographic processing skills also account for variance, above and beyond that explained by phonolog skills.
Sparks, R. L., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., Humbach, N., & Javorsky, J. (2008). Early first-language reading and spelling skills predict later second-language reading and spelling skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 162-174.
students learning foreign lang (Germ, Span, or French) in grades 9 and 10
-examined early L1 predictors (word decoding, comprehension, spelling, phonolog awareness, receptive vocab, listening comp) on later L2 reading (word decoding and comp) and spelling skills in high school
-PREVIOUS RESEARCH: L1 phonolog awareness is good predictor of subsequent reading and decoding skills in another lang (referenced Durgunoglu, 2002 and Spanish, Lindsey, Manis, and Bailey, 2003 and Comeau, Cormier, Grandmaison, and Lacroix, 1999). implications that decoding skills develop independently of oral lang competence and acquisition of oral lang in L2 doesn’t ensure dvlmpt of word recog skills. probs with one component of lang can have neg effect on both L2 and L1 learning. spelling skills in L2 associatd with phonolog processing but reading skill in L2 had more sig influence on spelling than L1. need bottom up and top down processes for reading comp
-RESULTS: L1 word decoding was best predictor of L2 word decoding at the end of 9th and 10th grades. support that skills used to read words in L1 are highly correlated with skills used to read words in L2
-L1 spelling was best predictor of L2 spelling at end of 10th grades. implication is that L1 spelling skills developed in elementary school are used to learn spelling in L2 many years later. L1 phonolog awareness in elem school predictive of L2 spelling ability suggests long term transfer of phonolog skills in spelling and decoding in L2
-L1 reading comp best predictor of L2 reading comp. when 1st year L2 word decoding replaced Woodcock Basic Skills cluster, L1 reading comp still best predictor of L2 reading comp but when 2nd year L2 word decoding replaced 1st year, L2 word decoding was the best predictor. thus, L2 word decoding explains variance of L2 reading comp. yet, decoding explained less than half of variance. L1 lang proficiency var not explain significant additional variance. contend that oral proficiency in L2 more important for L2 reading comp as stud more proficient at decoding and read more difficult text.
-though lang are alphabetic transferred skills undergo adjustments to accomodate L2 orthographic pecularities
Marian, V. & Kaushanskaya, M. (2007). Cross-linguistic transfer and borrowing in bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguisitcs, 28(2), 369-390.
-CONCLN: Cross-linguistic lang influenced by diff in lang environment, architecture of lang system (includes linguistic structure – semantic and syntactic), grammatical category (noun, verb), concreteness level (abstract/concrete for nouns, action/state/func for verbs)
-patterns may be for bilinguals whose L1 more proficient . could’t separate indivi contributions of proficiency, order of acquisition, specific lang. lang status, local production contexts (if interviewed by monolingual speakers, borrowings dec)
-question is whether results/patterns will be similar for bilin w/ different proficiency and age of acquisition, other produc contexts, lang that follow diff structural properties
-suggests 2 types of cross-linguistic interaxn at diff levels of cog processing. borrowing may be rooted in lexical access phenomena. transfer may be rooted in representational/conceptual phenom
-grammatical category and level of concretness appear constrain lang interaxn differently. grammatical more likely influence on conceptual rep. level of concretenss more likely influence on lexical access. influence of control mechanisms
-interactive bilingual lang system
Durgunoglu, A. Y. (2002). Cross-linguistic transfer in literacy development and implications for language learners. Annals of Dyslexia, 52, 189-204.
The author’s goal was to use the exisiting research on cross-linguistic transfer to help distinguish between English language learners who are struggling due to cognitive or learning problems and those who are struggling due to low linguistic proficiency. The author states that if the student has mastered a certain level of proficiency in skills that are found to transfer across languages but are struggling with those skills in the non-native language, then it is possibly due to low linguistic proficiency and not due to cognitive or learning problems. If the student has not attained a certain level of proficiency in the native language, they should be observed further. It may be that the student has low school or home support. However, if the student has had extensive support, it is likely that he or she has a learning or cognitive disability.
Some aspects of literacy transfer over to other languages while others do not. This provides evidence for a common representation for general knowledge as well as separate representation for language specific information. One of the aspects of literacy that was found to transfer is phonological awareness. Another is syntactic awareness, which is the ability to notice internal grammatical structure of sentences. Syntactic awareness affects decoding skills and reading comprehension — students are able to engage in metacognition and monitor whether they comprehend what they are reading. They are also better able to use the sentence context. Also, functional awareness transfers. Though decoding skills may have negative transfer, overall, it does have positive transfer. There is a positive correlation between word recognition skills and spelling. And it looks like ELLs and native speakers go through the same stages for word recognition and spelling development. However, for students who speak a non-alphabetic language, this transfer process does not occur, for obvious reasons. The use of formal definitions and decontextualized language , knowledge of stroy grammar and writing conventions, good meaning making strategies in comprehension are also aspects of literacy that transfer from one language to another.
-dvlpd in Reading and Writing Project at Columbia University
-teachers should think aloud
-students have lots of choice
-teacher: teacher/mentor: model writing techniques and conferring w/ student. teach one skill at a time. 2-7 min; direct writing instruction=mini lesson; then at least 45 min independent writing; also sharing of work; could be small group work, could skip
-mini lesson about 10-15 min: makes connection to previous lesson, teaches new skill, practice
- Write about own ideas
- Consistent writing process
- Work in authentic ways
- Foster independence
-Steps (1 month)
- Generating ideas (1-2 days)
- Collecting writing entries (5–10 days)
- Choosing a seed idea (2–3 days)
- Planning the draft (1–2 days)
- Revising to change the content and quality (1–3 days)
- Editing to improve grammar (1–2 days)
- Publishing the piece to share it with the world (1–3 days)
- Writing Celebration (1 day)