Sparks, R. L., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., Humbach, N., & Javorsky, J. (2008). Early first-language reading and spelling skills predict later second-language reading and spelling skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 162-174.
students learning foreign lang (Germ, Span, or French) in grades 9 and 10
-examined early L1 predictors (word decoding, comprehension, spelling, phonolog awareness, receptive vocab, listening comp) on later L2 reading (word decoding and comp) and spelling skills in high school
-PREVIOUS RESEARCH: L1 phonolog awareness is good predictor of subsequent reading and decoding skills in another lang (referenced Durgunoglu, 2002 and Spanish, Lindsey, Manis, and Bailey, 2003 and Comeau, Cormier, Grandmaison, and Lacroix, 1999). implications that decoding skills develop independently of oral lang competence and acquisition of oral lang in L2 doesn’t ensure dvlmpt of word recog skills. probs with one component of lang can have neg effect on both L2 and L1 learning. spelling skills in L2 associatd with phonolog processing but reading skill in L2 had more sig influence on spelling than L1. need bottom up and top down processes for reading comp
-RESULTS: L1 word decoding was best predictor of L2 word decoding at the end of 9th and 10th grades. support that skills used to read words in L1 are highly correlated with skills used to read words in L2
-L1 spelling was best predictor of L2 spelling at end of 10th grades. implication is that L1 spelling skills developed in elementary school are used to learn spelling in L2 many years later. L1 phonolog awareness in elem school predictive of L2 spelling ability suggests long term transfer of phonolog skills in spelling and decoding in L2
-L1 reading comp best predictor of L2 reading comp. when 1st year L2 word decoding replaced Woodcock Basic Skills cluster, L1 reading comp still best predictor of L2 reading comp but when 2nd year L2 word decoding replaced 1st year, L2 word decoding was the best predictor. thus, L2 word decoding explains variance of L2 reading comp. yet, decoding explained less than half of variance. L1 lang proficiency var not explain significant additional variance. contend that oral proficiency in L2 more important for L2 reading comp as stud more proficient at decoding and read more difficult text.
-though lang are alphabetic transferred skills undergo adjustments to accomodate L2 orthographic pecularities