article for 805

“Cross-linguistic transfer”; “Crossover of ___ Skills”

Cardenas-Hagan, E., Carlson, C.D., & Pollard-Durodola, S.D. (2007). The cross-linguistic transfer of early literacy skills: The role of initial L1 and L2 skills and language of instruction. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 38(3), 249-259.

-with monolingual speakers, phonological awareness is precursor for learning to read; is common underlying proficiency

-possibility that transfer of reading skills may depend on initial literacy in L1 and L2.

-Bilingual Ed theoretical framework: common underlying knowledge about language: interdependenc hypothesis

-L1 vocab and conceptual knowledge highly developed and supported by environment outside of school, intensive immersion in L2 may be beneficial for L2 dvlpmt.

-less dvlped L1 vocab and conceptual knowledge immersed in L2 may not experience continued dvlpmt of L1 and limiting effect of dvlpmt of L2

-Chiappe, Siegel, Wade-Woolley studied native English and ESL K students, both groups performed similarly in Eng acquisition when taught in Eng immersion

-Muter, Hulme, Snowling, Taylor found that at-risk and not-at-risk students with low initial Eng skills in K performed at lower levels on later Eng measures in 1st. no interactions suggests dvlpmnt of Eng skills dependent on initial Eng skills. initial L1 skills not measured

-language of instruction must facilitate dvlpmt of vocab, concept knowledge, pring awareness, and language b/c can’t relate L2 linguistic and emergent lit knolwedge to spoken native lang

-transfer expected to be enhanced when receive instruction in L1 and made transition to L2

-Cummins argued to dvlp L1 skills before intense instruction in L2. Lopez and Greenfield agreed

-though phonol0gical awareness in Eng strongly related to Eng language proficiency, Sp lang proficiency and Sp phonological awareness also contribute to Eng phonological awareness

-those not exposed to literate environment before school, initial language of instruction important

-Phonological Awareness theoretical framework: beginning readers who understand/are aware of phonemes more likely to learn orthographic-phonologic correspondences

-strong correlation b/t phonolog awareness and word recog skills

-phonolog awareness and word recog seem to transfer across lang

-bilingual programs (diff is use of L1 in acquisition of L2)

  • transitional — early exit. L1 rapidly dec
  • transitional — late exit. L1 is lang of instruction from K to 6. at least 40% in L1

-types of ESL programs

  • immersion — primarily L2
  • transitional bilingual,
  • dual language — maintain L1 while learning L2. instruction in L1 and L2. reflects Cummins’ theory that it takes 5-7 ears for cognitive, academic learning and transfer of skils and knowledge from 1 lang to other

-usu 50/50 model, divi b/t languages and not mixed

-few studies have studied the simultaneous role of initial L1 and L2 skills on later acquisition of L2 skills. Mostly focus on studying acquisition and production of L2 structures through L1

-some research support instruction in L1 while others support instruction in L2. few studies on how diff instruction can produce diff results in students with diff initial L1 and L2 skills

-reserach focused on narrow range of skills, mostly phonological awareness and word reading

-PURPOSE OF STUDY: examine relationship b/t ELL L1 letter naming and sound id, phonolog awareness, oral lang skills and dvlpmt of same skills in L2.

-longitudinal Sp-speaking ELLs K to 2nd. Data from 1st yr, K students. 35 schools. 9 schools implemented immersion, 14 transitional bilingual, 7 dual language, 5 implemented 2 lang programs in diff classrooms in school (3 both immersion and dual, 3 both transitional bilingual and immersion)?. so, overall 15 immersion, 14 transitional, 10 dual. 2 classes from each school. 97 K teachers (34 I, 38 TB, 25 DL), 10 stud per class

-oral lang and literacy measures

  • letter name and sound id: identify letters of Eng and Sp alphabet
  • CTOPP has 9 subtests measuring phonolog, rapid name, phonlog mem. 5 used (Ellision, Blending Phonemes into Words, Blending Phonemes into Non-words, Segmenting Words, Sound Matching)
  • Test of Phonological Prcoessing-Spanish (TOPP-S) aligned with Eng CTOPP
  • Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery-Revised (WLPB-R)
  • Eng lang ratio

RESULTS: initial Sp and Eng performance for letter name sound id similar, about 1/3 of letters, phonological awareness about 1/4. but inital Sp oral lang higher than Eng but below normatve pop mean; end of year, letter name sound id higher in both lang, phonological higher. but oral lang both lang minimal inc

focused on relationship b/t initial L1 skills and later L2 skills as func of initial L2 skills (?). transfer is deg to which L1 predicted L2 skills above and byound initial L2 skills

RESULTS/DISCUSSION: L1 abilities mediates acquisition of L2 when beginning to acquire L2. early Sp skills predicted Eng outcomes at end of K controlling for early Eng skills. did differ according to skill and type of instruction.

  • #1a: letter name and sound id: level of intial L1 skills of students who began year w/ high L2 letter name and sound id had lil impact on end-of-year L2 letter name and sound id skills(??) regardless of lang of insturction
  • #1b: began year with low L2 letter name and sound id skills, level of initial L1 skills did impact end of year L2 letter name sound id skills. low initial L2 performed higher in English the stronger their Sp letter name and sound id skills, regardless of lang of instruction
  • #1 recap: so, when early Eng letter name sound id low, strong Sp letter name sound id related to higher later letter name and sound id in Eng, whether instructed in Sp or Eng. knowledge of Sp letter name sound id transferred
  • #2a: phonological awareness and oral lang skills, when instruction in Sp, early initial L1 skills predicted later Eng skills after controlling for early Eng skills
  • #2b: instruction in Eng, early Sp skills didn’t predict later Eng skills, controlling for early Eng skills

-should consider lang of instruction and L1 and L2 skills when deciding placements into lang of instruction programs. evidence that explicit instruction in foundational skills such as phonological awareness and phonics in L1 may assist transition to reading in L2. those with weak foundational skills in L2, level of L1 and lang of instructionhas an impact

-lil improv in oral lang abilities in L1 or L2

-need to examine broader range of skills over longer period of time in varied populations

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